In neuroscience, the process I call pattern-matching is often called invariance.
Yohan John in Quora raises the question and suggests the form of the answer: How does your brain discover similarity in the midst of so much dissimilarity? The answer is that the brain somehow creates invariant representations of objects and patterns.
What is invariance?
In math and physics, an invariant is a property of a system which remains unchanged under some transformation. Here